SLING-THROWING AS A SPORT

 
FEDERACIÓ BALEAR DE TIR DE FONA: http://www.tirdefona.com/
 
     
 

Chapter I

THE SPORT OF HURLING A SLING

 
     

TARGET

1.- Origin

The sport of hurling a sling comes from the historic tradition of the Balearic slingers who, with exceptional skill, used this artefact for their own survival- as a hunting tool and also as a weapon against their enemies.

2.- Definition

It's a discipline of athletics that, by means of a sling, a stone is propelled at an object or target. In certain competitions a tennis ball or similar can be used as a projectile instead of a stone.

3.- Forms

There are two forms that are essentially based on skill and force, they are:

ABILITY TO SHOOT ON TARGET

This is achieved by the slinging of stones (*) at a target. The following are the distances to be taken into consideration:

15, 30, 45, 60 & 90 paces (a pace is equivalent to 65 cm)

(*) In promotional, school or similar competitions, tennis balls or like can be used instead of stones.

DISTANCE

As the name implies the idea is to hurl the stone as far as possible using the sling.

 
     

4.- The form of hurling.

Any traditional method of throwing is permitted

(over-head, sideways, diagonal etc) provided that the stone does two full circles before being thrown. It is not considered valid the accompanying of an up and down movement, guiding the stone with the arm. In case of any doubt about the orthodoxy of a style of throwing, the Referee-judge is the one to decide.

5.- Form of dress

The thrower may use any form of dress of normal use, either street or sporting apparel. The thrower should, if the judge-referee so requests, at the beginning of the competition and during the same, wear somewhere easily visible, either on the chest or back that should be visible at all times.

 
 

Chapter II
THE PANEL OF COMPETITION JUDGES

 

LONG DISTANCE

1.- Its composition.

In all official competitions, the panel of judges should be at least as follows:

Referee-judge, main judge and secretary-judge

In the discipline of long distance there will also be a 'fall' judge, should it be considered necessary.

Their functions will be as follows:

1.1.- The Referee-Judge

This is the person with maximum responsibility over the competition and his decisions are indisputable. He controls the competition and he is the one who ratifies or overrules the decisions of the other judges.

He is the one responsible for making sure that the Rules are applied and he decides on any technical question that may arise during the competition and that apparently is not contemplated in the Rules.

He will check that the measurements of the ground, the target etc. as well as the slings and stones are standard.

He will assign the tasks to the other judges.

He may exclude any participant for inappropriate conduct and he will make decisions 'in-situ' when faced with any objections or complaints that may occur as regards the behaviour of any participant.

He is authorised to change the location of the competition if, in his opinion, the circumstances warrant the change, which will only be demonstrated after having finished a complete round of inspection.

He can decide to declare null a round or competition, order its repetition either the same day or on another day that he designates, should he decide that there has existed sufficient cause to vary the fairness of the result of the same.

He will determine, in the case of a draw, which throw has been closest to the mark, after consultation with the other judges should he so require.

 
     

WAY OF MEASURING

1.1.- The Main Judge

He will decide the order of throwing. He will declare whether a throw is null, failed or valid by means of the use of the following flags:

Null: Vertical red flag.

Failed: Horizontal red flag

Hit on frame: Horizontal white flag

Hit on target: Vertical white frame

He will situate himself at or behind the extension of the table or throwing-line, at a distance that will allow him to keep a close eye on any possible infraction on the part of the throwers.

The rest of the judges, as well as carrying out their functions, will also watch out for any possible infractions on the part of the throwers and also the impact of the stones. The main judge, in case of doubt, will consult with the rest of the panel and after deliberation will announce the final decision.

In the discipline of long distance throwing all valid throws will be shown as the target and will later be measured.

1.1.- The Secretary-Judge

It will be up to him to make up the official record of the competition, as per the format of the official federation, taking note of the full name of the participants by order of inscription, noting the club that they belong to, or if none their place of residence.

He will check that all those who are registered are present and eliminate the no-shows from the list.

He will note down on the Results sheets the verdicts corresponding to each throw:

- The capital letter N designates a null throw.

- The capital letter F designates a failed throw.

The scoring that corresponds to the distance of the throw, depending on whether the hit is on the frame or on the target itself, in the case of the later the figure will be circled for better visibility.

The length of the throw, in distance events.

Give an account of the judges who have refereed the competition.

Following the instructions of the Referee-judge, he will take note of any possible incidents during the competition.

On the conclusion of each stage of the competition, he will immediately fill in the Results sheet, signed by all the judges and he will announce the results to participants and public.

1.1.- The 'Fall' Judge

He will act only in long distance competitions. He will place himself at one extreme bordering the throwing section, wearing adequate protection. He will observe where the stones land.

If they land within the designated area, he will raise a white flag and go to the area where the stone has fallen, holding one extreme of the white tape used to measure the distance of the throw.

If the stone falls outside the area he will raise a red flag.

 
 
 
Chapter III

THROWING RANGE, TARGET, SLING AND STONES

 

CAGE

1.- Firing Range

The competition will take place in an earthen field or with grass etc. It should be flat, free of obstacles and measure a minimum length depending on the kind of competition to be held.

2.- Protective Netting/Cage

In one end of the playing field, at the narrower extreme, it is recommended to install a cage where all of the throws in the competition should take place. The said cage is for the protection of judges and spectators.

The measurements are as detailed in figs. 1 & 2.

The frame should be of a resistant material. The netting should be placed so that it is not stiff and can absorb the impact of the stones, without bouncing back against the thrower.

The cage should be covered with netting in all its surface area, including the top.

Should there not be a cage/frame installed, the Judge/Referee can authorise another kind of protection, or make sure that the participants and spectators are at least 10m away from the throwing line.

3.- The Line marking void throws.

There will be a plank 10cm wide X 3cm thick and 2m long.

The plank will be hinged in the middle so that it can be folded for transportation.

4.- Central axis

In the central axis of the cage/frame there will be an identifying line with the same characteristics as the aforementioned, from the lower edge of the frame to the 'void' line.

 
     

NULL LINE

5.- Target

It will be placed at the appropriate distance, depending on the kind of competition being held, at the continuation of the axis that passes through the centre of the cage/frame.

It will be made up of a square wooden frame, measuring 1,20m and 3cm thick.

With the centre in the crossing of the diagonals of the frame, a metal circle is placed 50cm in diameter and at least 1mm thick. It will be separated 2cm from the frame by a passing screw.

The whole unit is then suspended at a height of 1,60m, from the centre of the same to ground level by means of two supports 1m long 3cm in diameter or 5 X 5cm. One or two of the planks or slats will be placed at the back to make sure that it is held firm.

The target should offer guarantees as to its stability and ability to support the impact of stones weighing 250 gr. or less.

It will be placed as vertical as possible.

In the 'ball' category, the target can be a piece of wood with a painted target and sustained by ropes or nails.

6.- Slings

The slings can be made from pita fibre, straw, oakum, linen, cord, skin, hair, wool, etc or any other material of vegetal or animal origin. The use of slings made from materials of mineral, metal or any synthetic nature (plastic or derivatives) is considered to be against the rules.

No limit is set as to the shape or weight of the sling; it all depends on the Referee-judge to decide what can be classed as a sling.

Its maximum length (doubled in the middle) cannot be more than 1 m.

7.- Stones

In all competitions the stones used as projectiles should be of natural origin, that is to say they should not have undergone any process of artificial fabrication.

Any type of stones may be used, with no limit on size or shape, excluding however those which contain any magnetic minerals.

The Organising body of each competition will put at the disposal of the slingers a basket of stones, where possible from a torrent, which can be used by them, or they may choose to use their own stones.

The throwers, on being asked by the Referee-judge, should show and put at the disposal of the panel of judges the stones they intend to use.

If the Referee-judge observes any anomaly in the stones, he can make the throwers use the stones provided by the organising body, and should they refuse to do so they may be excluded from the competition.

 
     
 
     
Chapter IV

THE RUNNING OF THE COMPETITION.

NULL & VOID THROWS.

LONG DISTANCE.

 
     

1.- Throwing order

The participants will make their throws by order of inscription, in each of the rounds. Each competitor can make 2 series of 2 throws in each series. Those who manage a throw on target will be allowed one further throw to try to better the others.

In certain competitions, with the authorization of the federation, 5 throws can be made, without the right to an improvement throw.

2.- Trial throw

In the competition ground, each thrower can, where possible, make a single trial throw that does not score for competition purposes. These trial throws will take place by order of inscription and under the supervision of the judges. Once the competition has officially started no type of trial throw will be permitted, either on the competition grounds or in the vicinity.

3.- Throws

These will be made from inside the mandatory cage, or from behind the null & void line and the throw will be taken from a stationary position indicated by the main judge/referee.

4.- Other items of clothing

The participants are not allowed to wear protection gloves, nor use any kind of item that may help with the throw.

The use of bandages or sticking plasters in hands or wrists is not permitted, except in the case of an open wound or cut. Wristbands are allowed.

5.- New incorporations

Once the competition has started, in the appropriate category, it will not be permitted for any new participant to join the competition who was not present at the start with the judge before the beginning of the throwing, although previously inscribed. In the event of a justifiable delay, the judge can authorise the incorporation of the thrower in the round being disputed.

6.- Renounce a throw

If a competitor decides to renounce taking any of the throws due to him, this will be considered a null throw, except when the referee judge decides otherwise.

7.- Knocking down of the target

Should the target fall down, due to the impact of a throw, this will not automatically be declared a null throw. If the area where the stone has impacted is visible, the points will be adjudicated in the normal way. Should this not be the case, then the throw will be repeated , after the target has been assured in place.

8.- Retrieval of the stones

For the retrieval of the stones, once the round or throw has finished, for safety reasons the thrower should wait until authorised by the main judge or the Referee -judge.

NULL THROW

A throw is considered null, and it will be so declared by the Judge, when one of the following occurs:

9.- Throwing Time

If the thrower takes more than a minute to take the throw from the moment he is authorised to do so by the Judge. Should this occur on more than two occasions in the same competition, the Referee judge will be obliged to exclude him from the competition. However the points he has scored up until his exclusion will be valid. If when placing the stone or ball in the sling it should fall, before taking a swing, the thrower will be allowed put in place but should not surpass the maximum time limit.

10.- Stepping on the null line

If the thrower steps on the null line/board or any part of his body touches the ground past the null line either during or after the throw.

11.- Strike any part of the cage

If the stone should strike any part of the cage when being thrown, emerge sideways or backwards.

12.- Fall outside

In long distance should the stone fall out with the designated sector (see fig. 1)

13.- Double interruption

Should the thrower interrupt the swinging of the stone on two occasions, after having been authorised to throw.

14.- Falling of stone when being placed in the sling.

The thrower will be allowed to have another try should the stone fall when being placed in the sling.

 

POINTS SYSTEM

15.-  Scoring

The points system used in the competition will be as follows:

Distance

Frame

Target

30 paces

1 point

2

45 paces

2 points

4

60 paces

2 points

4

 

16.-  Zero score

Any failed or null throw will score zero

 

THE RULES APPLYING TO LONG DISTANCE THROWING

 

17.- Measurement of the throws

Each thrower will make 5 throws, one per series.

The best attempt of each thrower will be taken into account, however all of the throws will be measured and noted down, for consideration in the case of a draw. The unit of measurement to be used is metres & centimetres rounded down to the lower par.

18.- How to take measurements

The throws will be measured by the judges counting the distance between the lower line of the null line to where the stone finally comes to a stop. Of the stone, the part nearest the central point of throwing will count.

19.- Should the stone break

In the event that the stone should break into two or more pieces on hitting the ground, the largest piece will be taken into account by the judges.

20.- Numbering of the stones

The identification of the stones in this discipline is by numbering them in accordance with the number figuring on the back of each competitor and the number of attempts. And so the competitor with the number 3 on his back with his second throw should throw the stone bearing the number 32. The organising body should make available to the judges the means of carrying out the said marking.

21.- Protection of the 'fall' judges

One or two of the 'fall' judges will be duly protected from the impact of the falling stones.

22.- A valid throw

In order that the throw may be considered valid, the stone has to land and stay within the designated area, as per the measurements set. Should the stone touch the line the throw will be classed as null.

 
     
 
     
Chapter V

TIES ACCURACY & DISTANCE

 
     

ACCURACY

1.- First draw

In the accuracy discipline should a tie occur for any of the places in the classification, preference will be given to the thrower who has had most throws on target throughout the competition.

CLARIFICATION:

For example, in a competition on 30 paces:

 

Total

 

Thrower A

F

F

2

F

F

2 points

 

Thrower B

1

1

F

N

N

2 points

 

In this case the winner would be thrower A since he has more hits on target than thrower B.

2.- A tie for the 2nd time

Should the throwers still be tied, with the same number of null throws by both throwers, the winner or the classifier will be the one who has fewer null throws throughout the competition.

3.- A tie for the 3rd time

If there is still a tie, in the first three places in the classification, an additional throw will be taken, classifying the one who gets closest on target. In case of doubt, the throws will be repeated. The throw will be made from the shortest distance that they have competed in.

4.- Other ties

Ties in other positions will be classified as equals.

 

DISTANCE

5.- How to decide in the case of a draw

When there is a tie, the second and even third throw will be taken into account if need be. Should a tie still exist, one or several throws can be taken until a winner emerges.

For the rest of the positions in the case of a draw, they will be classified as equals.

COMPLAINTS/APPEALS

6.- Procedure to follow

Any complaint regarding how the competition is being run should be made verbally, in the first instance, and directed at the Referee- judge.

In case of disagreement the complaint should be made again this time in writing and should be accompanied by 6€ which will be returned should the complaint be accepted. This can be handed over immediately that the anomaly has occurred or a maximum of 10 minutes after the competition has finished. The organising body will not hand over the trophies until this time has passed or until the complaint has been resolved.

7.- Observations

Not withstanding the aforementioned, the participants, and only they, can make observations to the judges but only when they are moderate in their tone and language.

Any personal complaint made in an incorrect manner, in the opinion of the referee judge, will result in the total exclusion of the thrower from the competition where the incident occurs and the appropriate notification made to the federated competition committee.

 
   
 
     
Chapter VI

COMBINED EVENTS.

TEAM COMPETITIONS.

 
   

1.- Combined classification

The organisers can convoke trials or events based on different distances, adding up all the points scored in each, so as to achieve a combined classification. An example would be an event combining the distances 30 & 45 paces or 30 & 60 paces, or any combination of the distances that the rules allow.

2.- Team competitions


2.1 These can be disputed over distances of 15 or 30 paces.

The first distance is reserved for competitions using balls or of lesser categories. In the throws at 30 paces the participant can be men, women, juveniles. Mixed teams are permitted.

The teams are made up of a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 4.


2.2 The score will be the total of the points awarded to each team member.


2.3 In the case of a draw, the winner will be the team that has had the greater number of hits on target. Should the draw persist then it will be the team whose 4th member in order of points has managed to get the highest score. If it is still a draw, the winner will be the team who has the thrower with the highest score. As a last resort, one member of each of the drawing teams will take one or more addition throws until a winner emerges.

 
   
 
     
Chapter VII

DEFINITION OF “AFICIONADO” (AMATEUR) AND PRIZES

 
   

1.- Amateur sport

The sport of hurling a sling is defined as an amateur sport, which means that those who practise it do so for love of the sport itself, as a means of recreation and with no interest in obtaining any economic gain from the competitions.

2.- The exclusion of cash prizes

Consequently in this type of competitions it is not permitted to play for cash prizes and any player or organisation contravening this precept will be sanctioned.

3.- It is not allowed to accept money in any shape or form

The participants are not allowed to accept any monies for taking part in the competition. The most that can be done is to pay travel & accommodation expenses for the competition.

4.- Trophies & Prizes

The Organisers and Official bodies will give trophies, medal, diplomas, and replicas of works of art & crafts etc. but never cash prizes.

To obtain a trophy, a thrower must have at least one hit on target during the official competition. Should there be none, then the trophies will be passed on to those in the other categories.

Only one trophy is allowed per thrower per distance.

5.- Local Trophies

In each distance, the Organisation will present a trophy to each of the three 1st placed in each of the three established categories.

The said trophies will be considered to be of an official nature.

The Organization will make available additional trophies, designated to local throwers, while at the same time trying to maintain the logical preference as to the value and category of the official version.

The local thrower who wins an official trophy, should give up his local trophy, which will then be adjudicated to the next local thrower in the classification.

Under no circumstances can a trophy be adjudicated to any person who has not scored a point in the course of the official event.

The Referee- judge, in accordance with the Organising body, can leave empty or adjudicate the trophies to local throwers or not, from other categories, always aiming to give merit where it is due, taking into consideration all factor; points obtained, position in the category with most participants etc.

6.- Sanctions

Any thrower who infringes points 1 and 2 of this chapter will be penalised, following the established disciplinary procedure.

 
   
 
     
Chapter VIII

COMPETITIONS FOR WOMEN & JUVENILES

 
   

1.- Rules & Regulations

The said competitions will be governed by the same rules & regulations set out up till now, however the following will be taken into account:

2.- Classification & Trophies

The adult female participants will take part over a distance of 15 & 30 paces.

3.- Under 14 year olds

Those aged 14 and under will compete at half the official distances, that is to say 15 & 30 paces. The long distance discipline remains unchanged.

4.- Juveniles competing with Adults

Under normal circumstances juveniles cannot compete in the same categories with adults, except in team competitions.

5.- Scoring

The means of scoring will be the same as in the distance 30& 60 paces, although the distance is halved.

 

 
   
 
     
Chapter IX
RECORDS
 
   

1.- Official Records Book

The Official College of "Sling-Throwing" Judges will be in charge of keeping the appropriate Official Record Book where the maximum scores and distances achieved over the years will be noted down.


2.- Register

A register will be kept for the following disciplines:

15 paces (the sum of the points from 5 throws)
30 paces (the sum of the points from 5 throws)
45 paces (the sum of the points from 5 throws)
60 paces (the sum of the points from 5 throws)
90 paces (the sum of the points from 5 throws)


Combinations of 15 + 30, 30 + 45, & 30 + 60.

Long distance. The distance achieved will be noted down in metres & centimetres and rounded down to the lower par.

3.- Uniting of Criteria.

At the end of each quarter, the C.O.J.T.F will unite criteria on the scores that surpass or equal those inscribed in the Official Book
And that have been achieved within the rules and during official competitions controlled by the Official College of "Sling-Throwing" Judges.


4.- Exclusion from the Uniting of Criteria

No record will be considered as such in any discipline or distance out with those outlined in the aforementioned.


5.- Official Diplomas

All competitors who equal or achieve a record throw will receive an official Diploma accrediting this at the end of the year.

 
   
 
     
Chapter X

CHANGES TO THE PRESENT RULES & REGULATIONS

 
   

1.- The appropriate people or organising body


The following can propose changes to the prevailing rules & regulations.

a. The throwers, by way of a proposal that should be signed of half + 1 of the throwers registered for the year in course.

b. The Balearic Federation of Sling-throwing, by way of a proposal signed by one third of the members of the management committee.

c. The Official College of Sling-throwing Judges, by way of a proposal that has the support of the majority of its management committee.

2.- Deadline for their presentation

The said proposals should be presented at least one month before the assembly is due to sit to debate the changes.

3.- Approval or Rejection

The Balearic Federation of Sling-Throwers will meet in an ordinary or extraordinary assembly to approve or reject the proposals depending on the votes of the members.

4.- Adoption of the changes

The changes that have been approved will come into effect two weeks after the assembly has endorsed them.

 
   
 
 

 

 

 
   
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